Clare Leighton. British/American, 1898 - 1989

Much recognized Claire Leighton captured the essence of both the English and American countryside.

Artist Statement

It isn't a matter of deciding, as though one were planning for a career as a doctor or a lawyer, wrote Clare Leighton in an unpublished essay titled "The Growth and Shaping of an Artist," the decision is already made and one has been stamped by it from the earliest moments - even before one could formulate what was happening.

- Clare Leighton

Clare Leighton: Her Family Foundations
by David Leighton

It isn't a matter of deciding, as though one were planning for a career as a doctor or a lawyer, wrote Clare Leighton in an unpublished essay titled "The Growth and Shaping of an Artist," the decision is already made and one has been stamped by it from the earliest moments -- even before one could formulate what was happening. [1] This element of predestination seems to be present in any artist's life and it remains one of humanity's permanent mysteries. Nevertheless, with Clare Leighton we can also trace a network of strong family influences that affected her choice of professions.

The greatest of these must have been the almost obsessive enthusiasm for creative work in the Leighton household. This embraced all members of the family. Clare's mother, Marie Connor Leighton, had written precocious romantic poetry from her teenage years and maintained her literary productivity throughout her life. As the family's main breadwinner she wrote some 65 novels, most of which were published in serial form in the popular press. Clare declared that she herself had "almost been born into the ink-well," as even in the early stages of labor her mother could only with difficulty be persuaded to lay aside her ever-active goose-quill pen. [2]

Marie was also opinionated and hurtfully dismissive of Clare's looks, ambitions and talents. Fortunately Clare had the stamina to react with determination. Indeed, in the essay quoted above, she wonders whether temporary damming up of free expression may sometimes bear artistic fruit, much as the medieval painter's apprentice learned all there was to know about the medium while grinding and mixing his master's pigments.

For Clare in childhood, work meant first learning to read and write, not just with correct spelling, but striving for copy-book perfection; hours of neat sewing and mending; and conforming to the old adage that children should be seen and not heard, (except, that is, when they were practicing an approved piece of music on the piano). Twice daily she was taken for a walk around the pleasant residential area of London known as St. John's Wood, carefully dressed to impress the neighbours and tightly holding onto her nurse's hand.

As she grew older Clare developed an interest in recording her impressions of the world around her, although she often chose to describe it visually rather than in writing. She noted, almost daily, in her teenage diaries: "drew trees; sketched market people; drew sailing boats." She read avidly from the many books in the house. Her early inclination to think for herself must have created a degree of stress that found little sympathy within the household. She later described the nature of her upbringing as "juvenile monasticism."

Fortunately, Clare's artistic development was greatly helped by the sympathetic support of her father, who was older and wiser than Marie, though his day-to-day influence in the household was attenuated by his deafness. By all accounts, Robert Leighton was the kindest of men. Trained in youth as a printer and bookbinder, he later became a newspaper editor and wrote some 40 books of adventure stories. These largely had historical themes; they were entertaining and informative and were much favored as school prizes. Uncredited, Robert edited Hall Caine's monumental "Life of Christ," published in 1938, four years after Robert's death. He was also an acknowledged expert on dogs. His secret ambition, however, was to be an artist and he would often sneak up to the children's room, set up an easel and paint with his daughter.

While Clare's younger brother Evelyn taught himself warship recognition and the Morse code in preparation for a naval career, her older brother Roland was the openly favored child. Looked up to by the others, he absorbed his parents' work ethic and took most of the prizes at his public school. (American readers may like to be reminded that in this specifically English context, "public" perversely means "selective, fee-paying and private!") As a youngster he started a Leighton family news-sheet which Clare illustrated. This early collaboration prefigures Clare's later decisive work for the "New Leader" magazine, edited by the left-wing thinker and activist Henry Noel Brailsford. When, like so many others, Roland lost his life as a young officer in the carnage of the First World War, the family was devastated. Marie went into something of a decline. Her anonymous and emotional book "Boy of My Heart" told Roland's life story and bore on the dust-jacket Clare's sepia pencil portrait of her much loved and admired brother.

In that same year, 1916, 18 year-old Clare made an artistically mature charcoal portrait of her father's brother. Uncle Jack, a young widower, was himself an artist and illustrator who accompanied Clare on numerous sketching trips to mainland Europe. They travelled by train and bicycle and brought home many drawings and watercolors (see plates 1-10). Some of these would later be transformed into wood-engravings, notably those from the 1920s of Toulon and Dalmatia.

Clare's later exposure to some of the finest intellects of her day, primarily as a result of her close association with Noel Brailsford, greatly enriched her own development. Here it is appropriate to mention an additional early influence, which did much to supplement her literary environment at home, her patchy schooling, and the sound art training that she received at Brighton and in London. Besides his brother Jack, Clare's father had three unmarried sisters who lived in a country cottage at the end of a narrow lane, resplendent with wild primroses in the spring, but damp and chilly in the winter. Aunt Alexes was an actress whose inherited talents may have led to Clare much later being described by a lecture agent as "one of America's most dynamic platform personalities." Aunt Jean ran the household. Aunt Sarah spent much of her time reading books in a variety of languages. Clare's mother thought the three aunts beneath her social level, so she saw little reason to maintain contact with them. However, on the threshold of adulthood, Clare asked Uncle Jack whether he thought Aunt Sarah would like to see her. His reply was: "Well, she's been waiting 18 years for you!" The resulting relationship became a source of continual support throughout Clare's life. She later wrote, There was such power in this frail little woman; the power to produce in another those things she had not been able to produce herself. She was the first person to show me love. It was not the demonstrative type, I don't remember a hug or a kiss. But in me she placed the hope that I might create those things that she had not been able to do.

There can be no doubt that Aunt Sarah provided much of the fortifying emotional self-confidence which sustained Clare throughout the vicissitudes of her adult life.

In the course of one of their many comfortable chats in front of a log fire in the winter or in the garden on a summer evening, Sarah told Clare of a touching incident concerning an earlier member of the Leighton family. Clare's grandfather, although well known as a Scottish poet and raconteur, had earned his living as a travelling salesman for a company of seed merchants. Amid the tedious concerns of commerce, he had always hankered after work in which "head, heart and hand might join." On a business trip to America he had been profoundly moved by a visit to Niagara Falls. As he gazed in awe at the thundering torrents, the biblical injunction to "Cast thy bread upon the waters: for thou shalt find it after many days" came into his mind. He had in his pocket a small volume of his own poetry. Pensively, he took it out and threw it over the railing into the roaring white spray, trusting that something might in due course be returned.

Many years later, Clare came to see her own wood-engraving, which demands collaboration between just those three elements -- head, heart and hand -- as a fulfilment of her grandfather's wish.

Born and raised in London, England, Clare Leighton began her career in the arts by attending the Slade School of Art at the University of London. Early on Leighton chose wood engraving as her medium and is best known for her illustrations of agrarian life in England, Europe and the American South. During her career she illustrated at least 65 books including The Return of the Native by Thomas Hardy. She also wrote and illustrated her own books such as The Farmers Year (1933), Four Hedges (1935), Country Matters (1937) and Southern Harvest (1942).

Clare Leighton immigrated to the United States in 1939 and set up home first in Baltimore, Maryland, then Durham, North Carolina and finally Woodbury, Connecticut. Leighton taught at Duke University while in Durham during the 1940's and was part of a group of cultural elite that included the poet Paul Green. The artist became a United States citizen in 1945 and earned an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts from Colby College in Waterville, Maine.

During her lifetime, Leighton was a member of numerous prestigious arts organizations including the National Institute of Arts and Letters in New York City, the National Academy of Design in New York City, the Royal Society of Painters, Etchers and Engravers in London and the Society of American Graphic Artists. She exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the Art Institute of Chicago and received a major retrospective in 1977 from the Boston Public Library.

Gallery C
Raleigh NC

born 1898 in London England

died 1989 in Woodbury CT

Slade School of Art, University of London

public collections include
Art Institute of Chicago, IL
Baltimore Museum of Art, MD
British Museum, London, England
Cleveland Museum of Art, OH
Library of Congress, Washington DC
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Museum of Modern Art , New York
Terre Museum of American Art, Chicago, IL
Victoria and Albert, London, England


Clare Leighton's Prints Celebrated in Richmond
by Peter Tripp
Editor-in-Chief Fine Arts Connoisseur, September, 2013

The exhibition "Clare Leighton: From Pencil to Proof to Press" will be shared by two distinguished partner institutions this season.

The Bird Cage, by Clare Leighton, on artline
Clare Leighton, "The Bird Cage" (from Thomas Hardy, "Under the Greenwood Tree"), 1940,
wood engraving on paper

Rocky Shore, by Clare Leighton, on artline
Clare Leighton, "Rocky Shore," n.d., watercolor on paper, 9 x 13 1/8 in.

Borrowed from the local, and rarely seen, Evelyn Lloyd Phaup Collection lent by the Hudson Family, a total of more than 100 works will go on view from October 8 at the University of Richmond Harnett Museum of Art, and from October 19 at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Both presentations will close on April 6, 2014.

Not enough U.S. art lovers know about the Anglo-American artist Clare Leighton (1898–1989). Born and raised in England, Leighton came to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. She first lived in Maryland, and then North Carolina, eventually settling in Connecticut. Leighton was captivated by America's abundant natural resources, its vitality, and its people. Her experience as both an observer and a participant in American life informed her work, conveying the close relationship between people and the environment.

Leighton created drawings and watercolors, as well as designing posters for the London Transit system, but she is best known for her wood engravings of rural subjects in England and America. She had trained at the Brighton School of Art, Slade School of Fine Art, University of London, and London County Council Central School of Arts and Crafts, where she studied wood engraving under Noel Rooke.

Leighton became a central figure in the revival of British wood engraving, and set a new standard for its style and production, contributing to the medium's growing popularity in the 1920s and 1930s. Her wood engravings are characterized by powerful contrasts of white and black tones, and her prints emphasize the importance of precision and simplicity. She wrote and illustrated studies, as well as producing images for new editions of literary classics such as "The Return of the Native" by Thomas Hardy and "Wuthering Heights" by Emily Brontë. The exhibition includes examples of this work, as well as from her own books, such as "Southern Harvest" and "Where Land Meets Sea: The Enduring Cape Cod," which contain personal impressions of her new home.

"Clare Leighton: From Pencil to Proof to Press" is organized by the University of Richmond Museums and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, and curated by Sylvia Yount, chief curator and curator of American Art, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, and Richard Waller, executive director, University Museums, with assistance from Lourdes Figueroa, 2013 Harnett Summer Research Fellow, University Museums, University of Richmond.

The museums have planned an array of educational activities all season long. Details are available at and


Clare Leighton The Growth of Shaping of an Artist / Writer, foreword by Simon Brett, The Estate of Clare Leighton, 2009.
Where Land Meets Sea: The Enduring Cape Cod by Clare Leighton
Country Matters by Claire Leighton, 1939
Four hedges; a gardener's chronicle by Clare Leighton, 1935
The Farmers Year by Clare Leighton, 1933
Wood engravings and Woodcuts, 1932 by Clare Leighton (first woman to produce a book on the art of wood engraving)


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